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August 08, 2022

Science > Coriander


Common Name


Scientific Name

Coriandrum sativum L.


Coriander is one year-old, herbaceous plant from the family of Apiaceae or Umbelliferae. At temperatures above 4ºC degree it sprouts but the optimum temperature for genotypes with small fruits is 17-20 ºC degree and genotypes with larger fruits are 22-27 ºC degree. After increasing the length of the stem, coriander is sensitive to low temperatures but resistant to dryness. Its full flowering process is considerably longer in the cold and rainy weather, as a result the number of fruits is reduced or several fruits will have only one mericarps containing a grain. The coriander fruits are almost round and consist of two mericarps, each containing a grain. Mericarp is a part of the fruit which separates from each other at maturity. The coriander seeds are greenish-brown and very perfumed (fragrant). There is little information about the primary origin of the coriander plant although it is generally said that the coriander is native to the southern regions of Europe and the western Mediterranean. Experts believe that its application dates back to at least 5000 BC. The name of coriander is derived from Greek words (Koros) means (insect) or (Koriannon) means (bug). German name "Wanzendill" and the Russian name "klopovnik" of this plant are derived from the German and Russian words to mean bug. This smell is caused by various aldehydes ingredients in the essential oil of the green plant. During the plant`s ripening time these aldehyde ingredients disappear. In Some sources the foliage of coriander is called "cilantro" and its fragrant seeds are “coriander”.


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